Finance is a broad term encompassing many things about the study, generation, and management of funds and investments. It encompasses banking, insurance, investments, market movements such as stock market, bonds, commodities, and so on. The discipline of finance also includes the application of economic theory to solve economic problems and guide people in making decisions. There are many fields of finance such as insurance, business, investment, bank lending, and financial markets.
Finance is very important to all economies because finance produces the money that enables the economy to function. Without money management, no market can exist and no economic activity can take place. There are three basic principles of good money management; stable currency, sound money management, and efficient banking. A stable currency is one that can be traded easily and economically. Sound money management recognizes that the real value of a nation’s currency is not simply its purchasing power based on current resources and goods but rather the potential value of its future goods and services in the face of changing circumstances. Finally, efficient banking systems can help to maximize the use of the assets of a nation.
As implied by the name, banking refers to the process of conducting financial transactions. Most modern banks use the system of negotiable instruments such as checks and drafts to facilitate payments of their customers. Basic elements of banking are clearing, holding, and transferring of payments between customers and lenders. Besides these three elements, other important aspects of banking are risk management, information management, and resolution of disputes or differences among customers, among other aspects. Finance also has many forms. These include business banking, government banking, and personal banking.
Business banking refers to the process of managing financial resources for businesses. The main objective of this type of banking is the quick movement of funds between different financial institutions and organizations. Government banking on the other hand is used by governments, foundations, and schools for the purpose of conducting official transactions. Personal finance includes money transfers between individuals and households.
As mentioned earlier, the main objective of the financial institutions is the safe storage of capital. This task is achieved through appropriate measurement and evaluation of the risks of holding the various forms of financial securities. One such form of security bonds. Bonds are issued by financial institutions as security for loan transactions.
Apart from these basic principles, contemporary concepts of finance are subject to constant change. In order to understand and predict changes in the financial markets, it is necessary for corporations and other entities involved in finance to analyze market trends carefully. There are various sources from which a company can draw information on trends in the industry. Among them are experts in the field, media, journals, etc. Corporate finance is one of the most important aspects of modern business organization. Therefore, firms involved in corporate finance must pay proper attention to the finance needs of their organizations.