July 23, 2024

The Three Areas of Finance

Finance is the study of money management. This field includes three broad subfields: personal, corporate and public financing – each area featuring unique institutions, procedures and standards.

Finance professionals provide budgeting, financial forecasting and capital financing decisions. In addition, they use mathematical techniques, statistics and economic theory to solve problems effectively.


Assets are resources owned by an individual, business or government that can be converted to cash and provide future economic value. Examples of assets include cash, financial securities, real estate property, vehicles and equipment as well as intangible ones like intellectual property trademarks or copyrights.

Assets can be divided into various categories based on how easily they can be converted to cash, including how soon they can be consumed or converted to cash within one year, such as cash, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and inventory. Noncurrent assets on the other hand represent long-term investments with potential returns beyond one year such as land and machinery – these may also be known as fixed or capital assets.


Liabilities are debts that businesses owe, such as money borrowed from banks to launch new products or buy equipment, payments due for materials received but yet paid for, payroll expenses, environmental cleanup costs and taxes due. A company’s net worth can be calculated by subtracting its liabilities from assets.

Financial accounting separates liabilities into two broad categories based on their expected maturities: short-term (current liabilities), and long-term or noncurrent liabilities. For instance, AT&T would list bank debt due within 12 months under current liabilities while long-term debt such as its mortgage is considered noncurrent on its balance sheet.

Financial stability of any company relies heavily on its ability to meet short-term and immediate liabilities on time, which is why many firms may take on long-term debt if it will help accelerate future growth.


Cash is the legal tender used to exchange goods and services in business transactions. Cash refers to any assets easily convertible into money, such as bank accounts, deposits or customer checks that can easily be turned into currency such as customer checks, vendor checks or money orders. A company’s cash account can be seen on its balance sheet while net cash levels can be tracked using a cash flow statement.

Liquid assets, such as certain deposit accounts and stocks, can easily be converted to cash without loss in market value, such as savings accounts. On the other hand, illiquid assets require more work to convert to cash and may include investments such as real estate or funds held within tax-advantaged retirement accounts that require penalties and taxes upon withdrawal. Having sufficient cash on hand is vital in meeting operating expenses, planning ahead for the future and funding capital expenses.


Investments involve making an outlay of time, effort or money in the hopes of reaping returns through income or appreciation. They can include traditional savings accounts and certificates of deposit; real estate; commodities; mutual and exchange-traded funds as well as more modern forms like mutual or exchange-traded funds. Investments vary by degree of risk posed: CDs typically offer lower returns while stocks carry greater opportunities for gains.

Investing is distinguished from both saving, which involves an implicit commitment of resources for later use, and speculation, which involves placing bets without expecting long-term returns on capital. Individuals should only consider investing after having created a personal spending plan and emergency fund; investing is often inefficient with risk/reward profiles being volatile.


Risk refers to the probability that something could go wrong that could significantly damage your finances, such as natural disasters or pandemics, which are beyond our control. Or they may result from decisions we make – taking on too much debt, investing in high-risk assets etc.

Financial risks consist of three distinct categories. Market risk refers to instability in the markets caused by fluctuations in stock prices, currencies and interest rates; credit risk refers to your inability to repay loans; while liquidity risk refers to not having enough cash on hand to meet short-term financial needs.

Model risk, the risk that financial models produce inaccurate predictions or adverse financial repercussions, can be mitigated through regular model validation and testing. Validating and testing models regularly can help eliminate this threat.

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